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21 Jul 2018

History Of Yarrow – Learn About Yarrow Uses Throughout History


Every year, prior to the onset of summer, I review our first aid kit with a checklist in hand to make sure it is well-stocked. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen – check. Antibiotic ointment – check. Adhesive bandages – check. Sterile gauze pads – check. Yarrow – check. Wait. Yarrow? Did she just say yarrow? Why, yes! I did.

Common yarrow, a member of the Asteraceae (Daisy) family, is rated for USDA plant hardiness zones 3-9 and features rounded clusters of white or pinkish flat-topped flowers. Each dainty flower in the cluster is 3-5 mm. in diameter. The leaves of this perennial are described as finely dissected and are 1-6 inches (2.5 to 15 cm.) long and up to an inch wide. A single yarrow plant can grow up to 36 inches (91 cm.) high.

While yarrow today is regarded more as an ornamental or maybe even an insect-repelling plant, it is, indeed, a first aid plant and has been for centuries. The history of yarrow reveals that this plant possesses medicinal properties as a hemostatic (blood coagulation), analgesic (pain reliever) and antiseptic. Read on to learn more about common yarrow uses.

Yarrow Plant History

Greek Trojan War hero, Achilles, may be best known for his weakness (his heels), when really, he should be most renowned for his use of yarrow, which he applied topically to his troops’ wounds during the siege of Troy. Achilles medicinal knowledge of yarrow actually came from his mentor, the mythological centaur Chiron. Achilles does get a nod to his role in yarrow’s history via the plant’s botanical name (Achillea millefolium or Achilles’ Thousand-Leaved plant). And, due to the application of yarrow on the battlefields, it was commonly referred to as Herba Militaris (the military herb) in classical times. While Achilles has been credited largely for yarrow’s discovery and use, some evidence suggests that its use pre-dated Achilles and was possibly a part of Neanderthal culture.

Most sources support the belief that the early colonists introduced yarrow into North America while others ascribe to the notion that it is a plant native to Native America, given how the plant’s use was so deeply embedded in native American culture. The Native Americans embraced the medicinal properties of yarrow and used it to remedy a large number of external and internal ailments including wounds, burns, toothaches, arthritis, digestion and sore throats, just to name a few yarrow uses.

Given its reputation as an effective blood coagulant and astringent, you would be surprised to know that yarrow can actually elicit a nosebleed if a fresh leaf is inserted in the nostril and twisted. Who would deliberately cause a nosebleed, you ask? Well, the young and lovelorn, for one. In the book A Modern Herbal, authored by Briton Mrs. M. Grieve in 1931, girls were taught (or misled…ahem) that they could determine if their suitor’s love be true if their nose bled upon inserting yarrow while reciting a prepared rhyme. Nosebleeds were also induced by those who believed they cured headaches. A trade-off of one problem for another, if you will…

I’m sure that after reading about the history of yarrow, many of you are wondering how to use yarrow in a medical application. Fresh leaves can be chewed into a paste and used as a simple poultice on wounds. Leaves can also be dried and pulverized into a powder that can be used on bleeding wounds. Yarrow can also be brewed into a tea – those who suffer from menstrual discomfort, for example, may wish to try the tea. Some people even infuse yarrow into an herbal oil.

Yarrow is very easy to grow and, if this yarrow plant history is any indication, would be a valuable addition to the flora in your backyard because it is first aid within reach and in a pinch!



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15 Jul 2018

9 Natural Pest-Fighting Flowers To Plant In Your Garden –


Over time most gardeners learn which flowers to plant around the garden with the properties that invite beneficial insects or repel insects naturally.

Planting flowers for natural pest control, reduces pesticide use but also your workload.

Less pesticides equals more good bugs, to control bad bugs such as the western flower thrips (flankliniella occidentalis), aphids, tomato hornworms, flea beetles, parasitic wasps and other insect pests.

A bed of beautiful flowers is perhaps one of the simplest ways you can get to add more aesthetic value to your home.

This will remain the fact provided that the right selection of the flowers is made taking into consideration the aspects such as variety or the intended architectural beauty.

Flowers however do pose one “problem” – their beautiful scents do attract many insects and most of these tend to be pests. These bugs eat the leaves, suck them dry of nutrients, cause diseases such as powdery mildew, and bring enormous plant damage.

These bugs eat the leaves, suck them dry of nutrients, cause diseases such as powdery mildew, and bring enormous plant damage.

Applying pesticides, insecticidal soaps, horticultural oils and other chemical controls, on the other hand would be non-ecological approach as these will devalue the current trend which most homes are usually after – the “going green” living concept.

A more biological control for keeping the invading pests is by perhaps planting some natural pesticide plants and flowers. Some of these pest control flowers include:

Marigolds

This is perhaps one of the most preferred landscaping flowers used in many homes as well as real estate projects.

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The beauty of marigold is that it is very effective in repelling invading insects and the advantage is that a home decorated with this beautiful flower will get to have its much needed aesthetic value without ever seeing any sign of an invading pest.

Other flowers are usually effective in repelling small-sized pests. Marigold is however an exception as it can repel as well as kill whiteflies and nematodes – which are among the most common invading pests.

Marigold flowers are available in different varieties which do come as either scented or unscented.

Though this flower can drive away many invading bugs, it will do little to keep away snails and getting rid of spider mites as the scent is actually appealing to these kinds of bugs.

Planting unscented marigold flowers is perhaps the only way for home owners who would like to keep off the spiders and snails.


Chrysanthemums

These flowers are very appealing in that they do comprise flower heads which do exists in white, yellow or pink colors.

growing-chrysanthemum-093014

They do attract many butterflies and for homeowners who would want the magical colors that these insects do add in, chrysanthemums would be a wonderful option.

In fact, one of the aspects which make chrysanthemums to be highly effective pest-fighting flowers is that they contain a highly active ingredient which is to make pesticides for killing and repelling beetles.

Besides their effectiveness at repelling insects, these flowers do grow very quickly and this implies that their intended benefits can be felt within just a shirt time span.


Dahlias

The beautiful thing about Dahlia flowers is that they do exist in a wide variety of shapes and colors thus making them to be very popular option among flower gardeners.

growing-dahlia-10312015

The other really impressive bit about Dahlia flowers is that they do work great when it comes to repelling some of the common invading pests.

They can repel nematodes while at the same time ensuring that they get to serve their other purpose – keeping a highly beautiful and useful look in the home garden.


Sunflowers

Homeowners in need of really large flowers will surely pick on sunflowers.

Their other benefit is that they will surely deliver the intended beauty aspect while at the same time serving their ecological function – acting as pollinator base mostly for butterflies.

In most of the times, the butterflies aren’t that many and this relatively small number will definitely help to add in some beauty to the flower garden. Sunflowers too are good at repelling pests especially aphids.


Petunias

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There are these pests which are highly destructive and within just a short time stint can destroy all the flowers grown in the vegetable garden – aphids, hornworms, cabbage worms, asparagus beetles and leafhoppers.

These pests do bore the essential parts of the flowers making them less attractive and to rid them, most homeowners will in most instances consider using pesticides and insecticide sprays. Petunias are however excellent at repelling these kind of pests as their juicy matter are strongly scented.

To utilize this yellow jacket repellent, simply soak cotton pads with the oil and strategically place them around the exterior of your home. Target areas where wasps like to build their nests and places where you have discovered their nests in the past. (..)


Borage

Besides being really attractive, the other upside of borage flowers is that they only attract the right kind of insects – bees which do serve the ecological function of acting as pollinators.

Borage flowers do grow very tall and do have some little scratchy hairs all over their bodies. Perhaps this is one factor which explains why these flowers are highly effective in fighting pests like cabbageworms and hornworms.

Their sprawling nature implies that they can cover the whole garden within no time thus ensuring that the invading pests are kept at a safe distance from even nearing the flower garden.

lavender-chair-flowers-03312016


Lavender Flowers

Besides being beautiful, the other useful thing with these flowers is that will attract beautiful insects to the flower garden.

The other really good thing is that they can repel moths, whiteflies and fleas while at the same time; their rapid growth (not so invasive) does ensure that they cover the flower garden just at the right timing.

Putting flowering Lavender in the garden is a really beautiful idea in that their act of attracting pollinating insects, helps to add much to ecological sustainability. Lavender flowers also do give out some scented aroma which is very effective in driving away mosquitoes.

Owning a little vegetable garden at your home? The more you should be prepared for an even more pest invasive environment.

The reason why vegetables tend to attract many pests is that they do act as nutrients source and their presence will do little in preventing the food-hungry pests from streaming in.

You may have that little time to weed the garden but when it comes to regularly applying any required natural organic pesticides – that will of course a highly daunting task.

Vegetables attract pests like larvae, caterpillars, beetles, aphids, squash bugs and all kind of plants you can think of. These pests do pose an unsightly look to any flower garden. They invade and perhaps this is the last thing you would want for your home.

The best garden pest control in this kind of situations is by perhaps planting the above flowers and others like Nasturtiums and Four O’ Clocks (a favorite of Japanese Beetles) around your vegetable garden.  This process is called companion planting. Other natural ways for pest management include the use of neem oil and diatomaceous earth. To have more information on organic pest controls at home gardens check out the video below:

Image: source





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09 Jul 2018

Top 10 Questions About Tulips


Here at Gardening Know How we get lots of questions, and our goal is to provide answers to those inquiries to the best of our knowledge. When it comes to growing bulbs, tulips are at the top of the list. The following article includes the 10 most commonly asked questions about tulip bulbs and their care in the garden.

1. When to plant tulip bulbs?

In general, the best time to plant tulip bulbs is in the fall around the months of October to November in the Northern Hemisphere. If you live in a mild winter area, you could even wait until December. Keep in mind that those residing on the opposite side of the globe (Southern Hemisphere), like Australia, will have different planting times – such as late April to May.

2. Why are there no flowers on my bulbs, just green leaves?

There are a multitude of reasons why your tulips are not bearing flowers:

Lack of Nutrients: Tulips need phosphorus to form flower buds. Conduct a soil test to verify that your soil is phosphorus deficient. Consider fertilizing your tulip bulbs annually with a phosphorus rich fertilizer to provide a much needed boost.

Inadequate Growing Conditions: Were the tulips planted in a location that receives full sun? Is the soil well draining? Were the tulips planted at the right depth (tulips should be planted three times deeper than they are tall)?

Energy-Deprived Bulbs: Resist the urge to mow down the foliage after the tulip flowers are spent. Prematurely cutting down the foliage prevents the leaves from storing enough energy to form the flower bulb. Let the foliage die back naturally instead and snip off any spent tulip blossoms so that energy isn’t diverted to a tulip’s seed producing efforts.

Bad Bulbs: Sometimes the bulbs that we purchase are not healthy. Inspect your bulbs before buying and planting. Were the bulbs you acquired plump and firm? It is recommended when buying a load of bulbs to slice one open and take a peek to see if the flower bud in the center is brown and dried up.

3. Can you replant tulips that have already bloomed?

Assuming you are talking about replanting bulbs that have been forced indoors over the winter, yes, you can – however, you may or may not get another bloom off them because tulips don’t rebound very well after being forced. But, to give yourself the best chance for tulip reblooming success, allow the foliage to die back naturally and store the container in a cool, dry location until spring. When planting, apply some bulb boosting fertilizer to the top of the soil where you planted your bulb.

4. How to take care of potted tulips?

If growing the potted tulips for indoor enjoyment, they will need to be forced (refer to question #8 “How can I force tulip bulbs?”) in order to receive the cold dormant period they require. The care of forced tulips is easy once the foliage emerges. Simply water the tulips when the soil is dry to the touch and keep the plant out of direct light and drafts.

Tulip bulbs planted in containers that are destined for placement outdoors are planted at the same depth as their in-ground outdoor counterparts. Consider layering your bulbs, with 3-4 inches (7.6-10 cm.) of potting soil between each layer, to create visually dynamic arrangements based on tulip height and color. Those in zones 6 or below can store the pot in a cool sheltered area such as a garage or basement. Water the container about once a month and bring it back outside, with a dose of fertilizer, in early spring. Those in zones 7 on up will want to pre-chill their bulbs prior to planting.

5. When should you dig up and divide tulips?

Tulips should only be dug up and divided after their foliage has completely died back, which would make your target any time from mid-summer to mid-fall.

6. How can I store my tulip bulbs until planting?

When digging up tulip bulbs for storage, brush any excess dirt off of the bulbs. Obtain a cardboard box and newspaper. Layer the bulbs in the cardboard box with newspaper sandwiched in between each layer, taking care that the bulbs in each layer do not touch. Store the box in a cool, dry place such as a basement or garage. Inspect the bulbs periodically and toss any that become mushy.

7. How do I keep animal pests from eating my tulips?

Tulip bulbs can be ransacked from below ground by voles or above ground by squirrels, or even deer. While there are many methods proposed for combatting these pests, here are a few tips on protecting your bulbs from rodents:

  • Laying and staking down chicken wire over the planting area can be an effective deterrent for our squirrelly friends.
  • As for voles, you can try constructing and embedding a makeshift cage into the ground using mesh with half inch holes. Plant your bulbs inside these cages – the bulb’s roots will still have free reign to penetrate through the mesh.
  • You can also try lining your bulb holes with sharp textured gravel, which voles do not like burrowing through.

8. How can I force tulip bulbs?

Buy spring tulip bulbs in the fall for the express purposing of forcing. Store them 12-16 weeks in a cool dark place that is 35-45 F. (2-7 C.). After this chilling period, procure a container with good drainage. Fill it with good quality potting soil 3-4 inches (7.6-10 cm.) shy of the container’s top rim. When planting tulip bulbs in containers, the flat side of the bulb should face toward the outside of the pot with the pointy end of the bulb facing up. Bulbs should be spaced at least one inch apart. Fill the container with soil, leaving the very tip of the tulip protruding through the top of the soil. Place the pot in a cool, dark place and water lightly once a week. Once foliage emerges, place the pot in bright indirect light and you should be rewarded with blooms in 2-3 weeks. Tulips can also be forced in water.

9. Do blooming tulips need protection in winter?

Tulips and other bulbs in bloom are more sensitive to frosts and freezes than they are when their buds are in a closed state. And this is really more of a concern for periods of prolonged cold, lasting several days. However, to err on the side of caution, a bed sheet hovered over the plants, supported by stakes, is an ideal way to protect your plants.

10. How and when to fertilize tulip plants?

Fertilize tulips once a year in the fall using a slow release tulip bulb fertilizer with a nutrient ratio of 9-9-6. If you do not want to use or seek out pre-packaged fertilizer, you can concoct your own mix using equal parts blood meal, green sand and bone meal.

We all have questions now and then, whether long-time gardeners or those just starting out. So if you have a gardening question, get a gardening answer. We’re always here to help.



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03 Jul 2018

How To Grow and Care For The Passion Vine: Passiflora Plant


The passiflora known more commonly as the “passion flower vine” is one of the “new” vines introduced for spring color offerings available at garden centers.

If you’re ready to add a conversation plant or something really unique to the outside patio on a trellis, take a look at this Brazilian native.

To learn about care, varieties and catch some video, continue reading the rest of the post below…


Passiflora From Brazil

The purple passion fruit makes its home from southern Brazil through Paraguay and in parts northern Argentina. Before 1900, passion fruit was partially naturalized and flourishing in coastal areas of Australia.

Seeds of the passion fruit were brought from Australia to Hawaii and first planted in 1880. It wasn’t long, because of its fast-growing nature that the passiflora vine became popular in home gardens.

Passion vines prefer a frost-free climate. Some cultivars can take temperatures into the upper 20’s (F) without serious damage.

The “Blue Passion Vine” is pretty cold hardy and salt tolerant but the plant does not grow well in intense summer heat.

The yellow passion fruit is tropical and isn’t fond of frost. The purple and yellow forms both need protection from the wind.

They make quite a few products from the plant and fruit – Like tea.

Another interesting item about the Passiflora is that they are very popular with butterflies such as zebra longwing and gulf fritillary butterfly.

There are dozens of passion vines, both edible and non-edible. Our focus will be on the ornamental variety.

Question: Are the fruits of passion flowers edible?

Answer: Many species of passion flowers bear edible fruits. among them, Passiflora data, antioquiensis, edula, incarnate (the Maypop of southern US), laurifolia, ligularis, and maliformis.


Is The Passion Flower An Annual or Perennial?

The Passion Flower is a quick-growing perennial plant which spreads via root suckers. It is a climbing vine and can cover large areas above ground and spread far and wide below ground.

In climates that experience warm winter temperatures, it is a woody plant. In very cold temperatures, the above-ground vegetation dies off during winter and the plant is herbaceous.


Culture And Growing Passion Flower Vines

Location of Passion Fruitpassion-flower-vine-2

Care for the passion fruit vines requires full sun except during those very hot summer days, if possible provide some partial shade. The vine is a fast grower and can get out of hand, so if possible plant it next to a chain link fence or on a trellis. and

What Soil Does Passion Fruit Flower Like?

The vines grow in many soil types but make sure the plant gets excellent drainage.

A well-drained soil is still the best. Also, passion flowers grow excellently on soils with pH levels of 6.5 to 7.5.

How Often To Water The Passion Flower Plant?

If you want to keep the vines flowering almost continuously, regular water is necessary.

The vines are shallow-rooted and will benefit from a thick layer of organic mulch in the soil.

Passion Vine Pruning – Is It Needed?

Although the passionflowers don’t need pruning to encourage growth, prune the fast-growing vine to keep it in control and encourage branching.

Prune in early spring as this serves as the perfect time when new growth appears. Avoid cutting the main stems, just remove those unwanted twining stems.

Passion Flower Fertilizer

Passiflora vines are vigorous growers and require regular fertilizing. Stay away from just using a 20-20-20 liquid fertilizer.

This may promote good growth but possibly too much green and not enough flower. Use a solid fertilizer with a ratio more along the lines of a 2-1-3.

What USDA Hardiness Zone Will The Passion Flower Grow?

The Passion Flower is listed as hardy in USDA hardiness zones 5-9; however, it may actually struggle in zone 5 and may not survive very cold winters.

If you live below zone 6 you should plant Passion Flower in a sheltered area near a wall so and provide the roots with protection against the cold in the wintertime. [source]

To identify your hardiness zone, use this handy interactive USDA map


6 Things To Remember When Buying Passiflora Plants

  • Find out when your nursery receives new shipments
  • Look for clean undamaged foliage
  • Inspect the plants for good root systems
  • Don’t let them hang out the window on the ride home
  • Don’t let them sit in the car while you run into the store.
  • They must acclimate to their new environment

Video showing many varieties of Passion Vines


When Does The Passion Flower Bloom?

The Passion Flower blooms from mid-summer to early fall. It is typically in bloom from July to September. The flowers are attractive and fragrant.

They transition into edible, egg-shaped fruits called Maypops.

These fruits are fleshy and quite tasty. They are good for eating out-of-hand and for making jelly.

Fruits are called Maypop because they pop loudly when stepped on. [source]


Why Isn’t My Passion Flower Blooming?

As the Passion Flower has grown in popularity, it has found itself planted in a variety of conditions and in areas it would never naturally grow.

Even though (or perhaps because) the plant is essentially a vigorous wildflower, these unusual circumstances can interfere with its performance.

Here are four of the most common reasons Passion Flower fails to bloom.

Age of The Plant

Like many types of plants, some Passion Flowers need several years to become established and bloom. This is especially true if you grow your plant from seed.

Depending upon your climate, passion flower may grow as a woody plant or a tender perennial. Woody plants often have a “juvenile stage” which precedes maturity.

During this phase, the plant will not flower. Instead, it will produce lots of leaves and shoots.

This may go on for a couple of years, but if you will just be patient with your plant and continue to care for it, you will eventually be rewarded with flowers.

Too Much Fertilizer

Remember the passion vine flower is basically a wildflower. They do better with less care and less nutrition.

Pampering and excessive fertilizing can lead to lots of leaves and no flowers. This is especially true if you feed a high nitrogen fertilizer, which encourages vegetative growth.

Your best bet is to stop fertilizing and water your plant thoroughly to wash away as much nitrogen as possible.

Adding phosphorus (i.e. bone meal) to the soil may also help balance nitrogen levels.

Not Enough Sunlight

Like most flowering, fruiting plants, Passion Flower needs lots of sun in order to produce. Keeping the plant in the shade may result in lots of leaves and few or no flowers.

Not Enough Water

These plants are drought tolerant, but that doesn’t mean that they do their best in drought conditions.

If you want a plant with plenty of pretty flowers and fruit, you must plant it in well-draining soil and give it plenty of water.

Ample water helps deliver nourishment to the leaves and other plant structures so the plant can thrive and flowers and fruit can grow.

These four considerations usually account for lack of flowering in Passion Flowers vines and many other natives, and flowering plants.

When you keep your climate and the plant’s growth habits in mind and take care to provide the right amount of nourishment, water and light, your plant will surely produce pretty blossoms in good time. [source]


Exotic Passion Flowers Have Been Symbolized With The Crucifixion

Early missionaries devoted to botany saw in the flowers a religious symbol. The flower parts, indicated in image, suggested to them the Passion of Christ, and thus the flower was named.

passion-flower-4-parts

These exotic passion flowers have been symbolized with the crucifixion and sometimes look like they resemble something from outer space.

  • 1 – Ten petals represent the ten apostles present at the crucifixion, Peter and Judas being absent;
  • 2 – Corona or crown represents the crown of thorns or thought to be emblematic of the halo
  • 3 – Five anthers suggestive of the five wounds or emblematic of hammers used to drive nails
  • 4 – Three stigmas representative of the three nails piercing the hands and the feet.

Not shown are the tendrils representing cords or whips and the leaves suggesting the hands of the persecutors.

The passion flower plant was one of the treasures found by the Spaniards in the new world.

Years later taxonomists classified the passion flower passiflora in a large family containing many species and a great number of hybrids.

Today, probably the best known hybrid is Passiflora alata-caerulea.

This passion flower variety has the largest and showiest flowers of them all and is a hybrid between Passiflora alata and Passiflora caerulea.

For more read Epic Gardening’s article!


Principal Passiflora Species & Hybrids

Passiflora alata, has winged stems, large fragrant flowers of crimson, purple and white, and yellow edible fruit about 5 in. long.

Passiflora ‘Alata-Caerulea’ – a hybrid between Passiflora alata and the blue passiflora caerulea, favorite with three-parted green leaves and fragrant four-inch flowers.

The petals and fringed crown combine pink, white, blue, and royal purple. Since the blooms are so large there are not as many of them.

Passiflora antioquiensis – Seeds are available for this South American species with five-inch red flowers, three-lobed leaves, edible fruit.

Passiflora bryonoldes – A vine with more slender growth. The foliage is three-to-five-lobed and more rounded than pointed.

The blue-and-white flowers with a rose-fringed crown are the same color as Passiflora edulis and each flower sets one-inch green fruit that ripens to purple-black.

The seeds are orange colored and they germinate well. The seedlings bloom the first year. It is a dainty and interesting vine to grow.

Passiflora caerulea – “Blue-crowned” passiflora with five-parted leaves and flowers in blue, rose, and pale green. The egg-shaped yellow fruit is edible. This is one of the more hardy species. Its variety, grandiflora, has larger flowers.

Passiflora cinnabarina – This Australian native has five-inch pebbly three-lobed rounded foliage and bears red, five-petaled star-shaped scarlet flowers, with a small yellow crown, followed by green aromatic fruits.

Does not appear to be a vigouous grower. The flowers are not as showy as many others passion flower varieties.

Passiflora sanguinolenta – also known as blood red passion flower which comes from Ecuador. It is a smaller type of perennial vine that can take frost.

410004-close-up

Passiflora coccinea – Toothed oval leaves, free-flowering species with scarlet and orange flowers.

We are indebted to Dr. Ira S. Nelson, professor of horticulture at the University of Southwestern Louisiana (formerly Southwestern Louisiana Institute), Lafayette, Louisiana, for re-introducing this spectacular variety.

He shared in his writings that of all the material he collected in Bolivia in 1954, this is the most showy.

“The two-inch fruit is pulpy and tart with an exotic flavor and pleasing aroma. It is well branched and sturdy” and reported that the plant he collected bloomed in late August each year since it began blooming.

Passiflora coriacea – is indeed different. Its foliage suggests a bat in flight. It has been dubbed the “bat-leaf” passiflora.

The lovely Blue-green leaves are mottled with silver or off-white. The 1 1/2-inch twin flowers are a pleasing golden yellow, and have five petals and no sepals.

Cuttings root well and usually bloom even while rooting in water.

Passiflora edulis – passionfruits, or purple granadilla – Three-lobed leaves, two-inch flowers white and purple fruit about the size of a hen’s egg, fruit used in many recipes in the tropics. A good climber, grown as a commercial crop in Australia, incarnata (maypop) is a native; fruit edible; flowers white, pink and purple.

Passiflora exoniensis a hybrid between Passiflora vanvolxensi and Passiflora mollissima, has large showy flowers of brick-red and rose-pink.

Passiflora foetida – Three-pointed leaves; two-inch flowers pinkish, with three fern-like fronds below the sepals. Brillant red fruit used in dried arrangements.

Passiflora incarnata – maypop, May apple, purple passion vine, wild passion flowers. Passiflora incarnata or purple passion plant.

A southern native, hardy with light frost, with three-inch blue-and-white flowers and three-lobed foliage which is pointed with a center lobe is six by two inches.

Passiflora laurifolia (Jamaica-honeysuckle) has entire leaves, white flowers spotted red, and yellow edible fruit.

Passiflora lutea – Hardy, and often native from Philadelphia south; one-inch yellow flowers.

Passiflora manicata is a rapid and vigorous climber, suitable for outdoor planting in the warmer parts of the country. It makes a fine show with its profusion of bright scarlet flowers set off with a blue crown.

Passiflora mollissima – Three-lobed, fuzzy leaves; three-inch rose flowers.

Passiflora quadrangularis – giant (Granadilla) one of the chief species grown for fruit. It is a tall strong grower, with large fragrant flowers of white, red and purple, and yellowish-green fruits to 9 in. long.

Passiflora racemosa (princeps) – Four-inch crimson flowers touched with purple and white, deeply lobed leaves, is one of the best of the red-flowered species, and has been largely used in hybridizing.

Passiflora tomentosa – Fuzzy vine with pink and purple flowers.

Passiflora trifasdata – Known for its variegated foliage, which is three-lobed to one-third of the leaf, with irregular rose-pink bands along the midrib, shading to silver and other hues, depending on the light in which it grows.

This foliage is most colorful if it is located in less sun than the all green varieties. Undersides of the leaves are wine-red. The 1 3/4-inch flowers are white to yellow with petals recurved and fragrant.

Passiflora violacea – exquisite 3 1/2-inch flowers which suggest “lavender and old lace.” The rich violet-lavender filaments have curled tips, eliminating any stiff appearance.

Even the petals and sepals are flushed lavender and three sepals are tipped with small green balls, the size of a radish seed, in place of the spine some other varieties have.

Flowers are fragrant and foliage is three-lobed and pointed. This vine has been hardy all the way to Minnesota when growing near the house foundation.

Family: Passifloraceae
Common Name: Passion Flower

Source: Wise Garden Encyclopedia
Image: source





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27 Jun 2018

Getting “Reel” With Fiskars Composting Tools


There is a wealth of information out there about composting methods, tips and techniques as well as laundry lists of compostable items. However, when it comes to the tools you can use to help you in your composting endeavors, the information, unfortunately, is a little on the lean side. I like to compost green and brown yard debris, which is essentially a mix of green grass clippings, leaves, and flowers intertwined with brown twigs, leaves, and dried grass. Fortunately for me, Fiskars has all the composting tools I need to create and collect all this yard debris and get the job done.

Manual Reel Mowers

A reel mower is a lawn mower that requires no gas, cords or batteries – hence, no carbon footprint, no odor, and no smells! I know…I know. It sounds like something that hearkens from an episode of The Waltons (or maybe they had a goat?). Anyhow, I assure you that today’s reel mowers, such as the Fiskars StaySharp™ Max Reel Mower, are very sophisticated and powerful. I call the Fiskars model a “feel good” piece of equipment, because it feels good to use from an environmentally mindful standpoint and literally feels good to mow with. I found it very easy to push and it was easy on my hands with its comfortable cushioned grip. It is also a “feel good” for the mechanically challenged (like me) who get frustrated easily and call in reinforcements to finish the job. The assembly itself was easy – roughly 15-20 minutes out of the box, completed all on my own, with no tools required. Adjustments, such as cutting height, are also easily made.

Grass Shears

I actually swore off grass shears a long, long time ago. I regard the grass shears of yesteryear more of a hand grip exercising gizmo than a functional practical hand tool. They were heavy in the hand, jammed up a lot and each squeeze on the handle literally made you grimace as you tried to work the squeaky blades. The Fiskars Shear Ease® Grass Shears actually turned my notion about grass shears on its head. They are lightweight, engineered to prevent jamming, and feature sharp precision-ground steel blades with a head that rotates 360° making them very ideal for edging and trimming decorative grasses around flower beds, trees and sidewalks.

Rakes

Have you ever experienced a lawn or garden rake that started to seem heavier and heavier the longer you used it in a raking session, slowing down your momentum and perhaps even your will to continue? I’ve “been there done that,” temporarily abandoning a raking job in order to give my weary arms a much needed respite. Thanks to Fiskars, I can now perform raking activities with a lot more ease and endurance due to the lightweight, yet durable, design of their rake product line, which helps me to provide fodder for my compost pile in no time flat. With their aluminum handles and strong resin heads, you can make fast work of jobs not only in open expanses, such as with the leaf rake, but also those in tight spaces, with the shrub rake. The garden rake, with its aluminum handle and 14 hardened steel tines, is ideal for loosening up and leveling soil, as well as removing weeds and dead grass from lawns and gardens.

Garden Forks

No discussion on composting tools would be complete without the inclusion of a garden fork because, hey, you do need to turn over that compost pile once in a while! The Fiskars Ergo D-handle Steel Garden Fork helps to make light work of the heavy tasks with an ergonomic angled D-handle that minimizes wrist strain and pointed boron steel tines that pierce through dense, hardened soil easily.

So there you have it. An overview of some of my essential composting tools. Be sure to check out Fiskars for these and many more tool options to fit your needs!



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21 Jun 2018

Lantana Plant – How To Grow and Care For Lantana Bush, Trees [GUIDE]


The lantana plant, a bright, sun-loving plant, producing flowers in abundance and rewarding you with lots of color.

Mastering lantana care is not difficult. Made to order for any bright patio with lots of direct sun. Lantana plants are basically tropical plants requiring lots of warmth.

Plant the Lantana bush in your outdoor garden as soon as all danger of frost is past.

In warm areas where frost seldom if ever occurs, the lantana plant can grow all year in the garden. Where they will flower constantly, attract hummingbirds, perfect for the butterfly garden and need only occasional trimming.


Lantana Plants Verbena Relatives

Lantanas belong to the verbena family. They grow much taller than the well-known annual verbena, but the small clusters of tubular blooms on this flowering plant look similar, and they bloom as freely. Lantana flowers come in red, orange, yellow, white, pink or lavender.

One variety with yellow flowers turns orange as they age and creates a striking bicolor effect.


Lantana Bush Size and Growth Rate

The woody, deciduous, perennial Lantana produces rather bushy growth which feels rough to the touch. As a whole ornamental Lantana plants will produce a bank of pleasing deep green.

Garden centers begin stocking plants around May, planting outdoors depends on the weather since lantana plants cannot handle frost.

According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the common Lantana plant variety grows well in USDA hardiness zones 10 and 11.

Most Lantana dies back when temperatures fall below 28 degrees (Fahrenheit). Most grow back from their root system when warm weather returns.

Some of the new hardy lantana cultivars grow well in USDA zone 8.

When growing lantana, know the primary use for the plant, since you’ll basically find two types or varieties of Lantana. Upright varieties are varieties better suited for use primarily as a ground cover, as bedding plants or even hanging baskets, reaching a height of 16 to 30 inches.


The Lantana Tree Looks Great In Large Pots Or Tubs

The upright growing varieties, if allowed to grow can reach heights of 5 to 7 feet and look great growing in large tubs or pots. When grown as a “tree form standard” the lantana tree makes for very attractive container subjects on a patio, terrace or a front entry.

If you have room in a greenhouse or sun room to over winter them, growing lantana in a decorative tub or large pot is the way to go.

How To Grow A Lantana Tree

lantana tree

To start a lantana tree, plant a small lantana in spring, into a larger container. Begin shaping the tree as soon as new growth begins.

Attach the stem (sometimes multiple stems) to a support like a bamboo stake, then begin trimming away any new side shoots.

Once the “tree” reaches approximately 30-36 inches, cut out the growing tip to encourage branching.

Continue to remove all growth below the branching top and begin to shape the top of the topiary.

I’ve grown several Lantana trees started from cuttings to a height of 4-5 foot tall and almost 4 foot wide.

This post shares some images on how it’s done, along with some other plants uncommonly grown as a topiary tree form style. This link shows 6 steps for growing a lantana tree.

Cottage Farms Sun Kissed Rose Lantana Patio Tree

The previously recorded video below not represent current pricing and availability. But it gives you some ideas of what a Lantana tree can look like!

Another bush or shrub that looks great when grown into a tree is the hibiscus.

Lantana Plants Attract Hummingbirds

Hummingbirds show their approval of lantana plantings at certain seasons by coming regularly during the early morning and late afternoon for nectar. For a thrill, note the hours they come and sit quietly to enjoy near the lantanas.


Lantana Bush Flowering and Fragrance

Who doesn’t want non stop flowers? Flowers that handle heat, drought and do not take a lot of work.

On top of it all, the flowers attract butterflies like a magnet.

However, they may not be deer resistant but deer has a tendency to stay away for Lantana. What plant can deliver all that color? Lantana!

nonstop-flowers-93020152403

From the stem tips sitting above the plant’s squarish stems, and rough leaves with a tooth-edge, emerge small clusters of tubular individual flowers with a small collar.

Flowers begin showing up, with an overall spicy fragrance when warm weather arrives, with non-stop blooms until the first frost burns it back. To keep the flowers coming, pick off seed balls – or dead flowers before they form seed.

Older mature plants bloom best, with colors ranging from orange-red, pink, yellow, purple, violet and bicolors.


Lantana Care – Light and Temperature

Grow or plant lantana in a warm, sunny position, they do very well in full sun. A west or south facing patio will produce the best-looking plants, with lots of flowers.

They will withstand the first light frosts of fall, but if you want to keep your old plants over for another season, dig them. More in the over-wintering section below.


Growing Lantana – Watering and Fertilizing

Even though the lantana plant is fairly drought tolerant, throughout the entire growing season water regularly. Lantana should never dry out.

In the spring when new growth begins, fertilize lightly using a balanced fertilizer such as 10-10-10.

A second application may be required during mid-summer. Lantanas respond well to a regular liquid fertilizing program and slow release fertilizers.

Be careful NOT TO OVER FERTILIZE as they may then produce excessive growth, weak stems and few blooms.


Lantana Plant Care – Soil and Transplanting

Lantana’s adapt to most soil conditions, use the same as bedding plants would grow in but they like a slightly acid (6.5 or lower), well-drained soil.

If planting in the ground in a heavy clay soil, thoroughly incorporate some sand or a coarse bark. If potted or planted in hanging baskets use a bagged commercial potting mix for best results.


Pruning and Grooming Lantana Trees

Keep your lantana in shape with selective pruning, removing old spent flowers, long or withered stems and unattractive branches.

Growing plants trained and shaped into a tree form makes for an attractive patio specimen.

Pinching encourages branching and production of flowering stems. Unpinched, the stems will trail and droop to greater lengths, with plentiful flowers. Whether or not to pinch growing tips is completely your choice.


lantana-orange

Propagating The Lantana Plant

Propagation from rooting a cutting will produce new plants the fastest, they can also grow from seed.

During the outdoor season, lantana plants may grow into small shrubs reaching 4 feet tall and sometimes more. In the case of overwintering, it’s easier to take cuttings in August than to dig and repot oversized plants.

Select cuttings with leaf joints close together. Make each cutting three or four inches in length, and when you cut, take a heel of wood from the main stem.

To root cuttings, first fill a small pot with moist, clean, gritty sand or perlite. I like a 50/50 mix of peat moss and perlite. I find less danger of fungus trouble using peat moss and perlite.

Remove the leaves from the lowest node, and set each cutting deep enough to cover the heel and the lowest node.

While Roots Are Forming

After planting, cover cuttings with a glass jar, or slip the entire container into a plastic bag. Set the container in a shaded, protected place, perhaps under shrubbery or indoors under grow lights.

Keep the rooting medium slightly moist. Unless the weather is unusually warm and dry, remove the jars for a while each day, or leave the plastic bag opened; this fresh air encourages healthy growth. When cuttings root, pot in moist soil as outlined earlier.


Pests On Lantana Plants

Few pests and diseases attack lantana’s, you’ll find them quite bug resistant. However, a handful of pests can impact the plant. Proper cultural practices limit most attacks, early detection and pests identification will speed up treatment and the recovery process.

Aphids – Generally found around the growing tip, buds and undersides of leaves where aphids suck sap from the plant and excrete a sticky substance called honeydew.

Plants heavily infested plants experience leaf drop, leaf yellowing, leaf curling and wilting. Check out this post for getting rid of aphids naturally.

Whiteflies – Small, white insects located on leaf undersides. Both adult and young feed on the plant.

Severe infestation causes leaf drop beginning with yellow leaf spots. Control with horticultural oil, insecticidal soap or other another natural organic insecticide neem spray oil.

Spider Mites – severe infestation during hot, dry periods are found on the undersides of leaves.

Look for plants lacking vigor, leaves showing a yellow to gray cast, and leaf drop. Control with  horticultural oil, insecticidal soap and other insecticides.

Lace Bugs – very common pest, feeds on the undersides of leaves, populations grow rapidly with high temperatures (90 degrees Fahrenheit).

On heavily infested plants leaves turn yellow and fall off early. Prune out severely damaged areas, treat with a systemic insecticide like acephate or imidacloprid. Provide sufficient nutrients and water to ensure recovery.

Leaf Miner – Feeds on interior leaves, leaving a whitish trail. Plants can handle a fair amount of injury before plant health comes into question.

Prune and destroy infested branches and foliage. In some areas parasitic wasps help control pests populations. Control with horticultural oil, insecticidal soap and other insecticides.

MealybugsMealybugs “hide” on the undersides of leaves and on stems, with damage similar to aphids.

Treat small outbreaks with a 50-50 spray of water and isopropyl alcohol. For larger infestations control with horticultural oil, insecticidal soap and other insecticides.


Lantana Plant Buying Tips

Start your lantana collection by picking up plants at the garden center or ordering new varieties online in the spring. At the garden center look of bushy plants, stiff stems and lots of buds.

Lots of color provided by the Lantana flower – Monrovia – via Pinterest


Uses For Lantana Bushes and Trees In The Landscape

Lantana makes a very colorful decorative plant for outdoor use on the patio or balcony.

Grow as a potted tree (my favorite), or planted as a bush and allow the stems to spill over.

The small ground cover varieties work well when planted in mass.

In my garden, lantana’s solved a seemingly hopeless problem spot – the space between a sidewalk and foundation, facing south.

The location stays not only hot but often dry. After planting the young plants and taking a few weeks to become established, they now thrive in this difficult situation.

NOTE: In some areas of the country you’ll find Lantana listed as an invasive species plant.


Overwintering Lantana Plants

After a summer of outdoor flowering, trim back the most woody stems when the pot or basket moves indoors to winter quarters, for fresh new growth.

If digging up plants, prune back roots and tops severely and pot in a moist well-drain soil or potting mix like Miracle Gro. Winter Lantana’s in a cool, sunny window, keeping soil on the dry side (but never completely dry).

Or store the pot in a cool (40 degrees) spot and keep it just barely moist. Keep the plant half-dormant and leafless, until late March or April – then start it growing again.

The all important annual pruning happens when moving plants back outdoors for the growing season.

Ruthlessly cutting back the entire top growth to six or seven inches will reward you with a brand-new, well-shaped plant for summer, with an abundance of the new wood on which the lantana produces flowers.


Lantana Varieties

Below are a few of the dozens of varieties and Lantana species available today. Most can trace their parent back to Lantana camara.

Lantana Confetti pruned into a tree via pinterest

Lantana ‘Confetti Tricolor’ – An excellent tricolor. The individual flowers in each cluster are yellow, pink, and a blending of purple. The effect is that of confetti on a green carpet.

yellow lantana flower

gold yellow lantana flower

Lantana ‘Cream Carpet’ – The masses of flowers are a heavy cream color centered yellow at the throat. The leaves are a particularly lush green and are very heavily produced.

Lantana ‘Gold Rush’ – Masses of solid gold Lantana flowers.

Lantana ‘Pink Frolic’ – Some of the flowers in the large clusters are creamy with a yellow throat, but most are two-tone pink.

Lantana ‘Spreading Sunset’ – Vividly colored yellow-and-red flowers; leaves are a very dark green.

planted landscape of yellow lantana varieties in full bloom – southern living – via Pinterest

Lantana ‘Sunburst’ – About the brightest solid yellow clusters – and large ones, too.

Family: Verbenaceae
Common Name: Weeping, Trailing Lantana





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15 Jun 2018

Learn About The History Of Pomegranates


The history of pomegranates starts in the tree’s native range, from current-day Iran to the Himalayas in northern India. The trees were cultivated and the fruit harvested throughout the Mediterranean for centuries. It was even featured in Egyptian mythology and mentioned in the Bible and the Talmud. If you are interested in learning more about pomegranate history or pomegranate tree uses, read on.

Pomegranate History

Even if you’ve never grown a pomegranate tree, you’ve probably seen or even eaten the unusual fruit. It’s the one with the hundreds of tightly packed seeds, each surrounded by juicy pink pigments. The pomegranate tree (Punica granatum) is small, often topping out at 10 feet (3 m.). It grows many stems and is naturally dense, looking more like a shrub than a tree. However, pomegranates can be trained into trees with a single trunk.

The tree produces vibrant orange blossoms in spring and summer. These develop into fruits, filled with seeds surrounded by edible pigments and leathery white rind. Pomegranate history is long and interesting. The fruit has been cultivated for hundreds of years and carried by desert caravans for its juice. The Latin name, Punica granatum, translates to “seeded apple.”

Historians believe that the history of pomegranates and their domestication of the pomegranate began in Central Asia and Persia 4,000 years ago. Cultivation moved through India, Asia Minor and the Mediterranean coast. Spanish settlers brought pomegranates to North America in the 16th century. In modern times, pomegranates are cultivated throughout India and the drier areas of Asia, Malaya, the East Indies and tropical Africa. The biggest commercial orchards can be found in Egypt, China, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Iraq, India, Burma and Saudi Arabia.

Pomegranate Tree Uses

The most important pomegranate tree uses involve fruit production. Many enjoy taking clusters of juice sacs from the rind and eating them. In countries like Iran, the juice is more popular than the fruit. Pomegranate juice is a popular beverage. It is widely used for grenadine in mixed drinks.

In the American South, gardeners make pomegranate jelly from the juice. In Saudi Arabia, the juice sacs are frozen for future use. In Asia, it is sometimes made into a thick syrup for use as a sauce. It is also often converted into wine. Pomegranate uses also include the making of spices. In northern India, wild fruits are used to make the spice called “anardana.” They dry the juice sacs in the sun to make the spice.



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09 Jun 2018

Adding Personality, or Starpower, to the Garden with Hollywood Hibiscus


Hibiscus is a star in the garden. These flowers are showy, bright and lend a tropical flair to any patio, flower bed or indoor space. These are warm weather, tropical climate plants, but anyone can enjoy them indoors. Check out the Hollywood Hibiscus Collection to find your favorite varieties and to figure out which one best suits your personality.

 

Hollywood Hibiscus Collection

This special collection of hibiscus plants has been developed to provide an abundance of buds and blooms. They have also been grown for attractive overall plant shape and growth habit and disease resistance. The creators of this collection also focused on producing the most stunning and colorful flowers so that home gardeners and container growers get the best flowers with the least required maintenance.

The collection includes a number of varieties of hibiscus in a range of pretty colors. ‘Leading Lady’ is a bright yellow flower with a white center, while ‘Chatty Cathy’ is the same shade of yellow but with a bright pink center.

Jolly Polly’ is a solid pink flower and ‘Runway Beauty’ is a lovely shade of pink that fades to white at the edges. For something more unusual, try the rich orange of ‘Party Crasher’ or the orange and magenta of ‘Starlette.’

 

Take the Hollywood Hibiscus Quiz

If you check out the gallery of Hollywood Hibiscus flowers and find it impossible to choose, why not pick more than one. Adding a variety of colors to a container or bed just makes it even more stunning. The best way to find your true star of the garden is to take the Hollywood Hibiscus quiz.

This fun quiz will use your personality traits and preferences to determine which beautiful variety will speak to you the most. Find the plant that best matches your free spirt, your shy side, or your enthusiasm for life. There’s a flower, or more than one, for everyone.

 

How to Care for Your Hibiscus Plants

Once you have selected one, or two, or more hibiscus plants for your garden, it’s important to understand how to care for these tropical super stars. Hibiscus plants need warmth and are only hardy outdoors through zone 9. If you live in a colder climate, put your plants in containers and bring them indoors for the winter months.

Hibiscus needs at least six hours of direct sunlight per day, so be sure you have a good spot for it. These plants will grow four to five feet (1.2 to 1.5 m.) in height and need a few feet of space between them if planted outdoors.

Make sure the soil drains well and water regularly during the growing season. During the colder months, only water when the soil dries out. Use a slow-release fertilizer early each spring to encourage growth and blooms.

Growing hibiscus in the garden or in containers is rewarding and will provide you with months of cheerful, bright flowers. To find the best hibiscus variety for you, and the most carefully developed and healthy plants, Hollywood Hibiscus is definitely the place to go.



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03 Jun 2018

How To Plant, Grow And Care For The Canna Lilies


The canna lily plant is a flamboyant summer flowering plant with a bold look. The plant grows from thick, fleshy bulbs. Canna is a genus in the banana family called Cannaceae.

These beautiful garden plants are low maintenance, easy to grow herbaceous perennials.

Canna flowers during summer time in various vibrant flowers in color of red, yellow or orange. They go in and out of gardening style.

Cannas are native to North and South America, ranging from Argentina to South Carolina and parts of the Caribbean islands. However, they grow in most parts of USA.

Canna flaccida – A small yellow flowered wild canna species native to South Carolina and Florida. It was a principal parent of today’s modern Cannas, through hybridizers can see little resemblance now.

Apart from being ornamental plants in the garden, but they have “other” uses as well. Canna lily seeds are hard and sturdy, brown/ black, when dry and pea-sized. The hard bullet-like seeds of Canna indica earned it the name “Indian Shot.”

Tip: When growing from seed, soak Canna seed in warm water, or notched with a file, to speed up germination.

The Canna Indica is used as a source of food as the bulbs or rhizomes contain starch, called achira. In Vietnam they use the starch to make high quality “cellophane” noodles. In Thailand the canna lily is a traditional gift on Father’s Day.


The Canna Plant

Introduced to Europe in the early 1500’s, canna species became popular tropical plants in the mid to late 1800’s.

Canna bulbs are perennial in nature. Individual stems have a thick rootstock or central stock which has on an average 10-12 leaves spirally growing around it. The plant leaf is generally emerald green but hybrids of dark bronze and maroon foliage colors, along with striping exist.

In the south, cannas are plant-em and forget-em. In cooler regions, they are grown as annuals. These plants can take plenty of heat and thrive in full sun. They require little care and continue to color your garden for years.


How To Grow The Canna Lily Flower

Location – when you plant canna lily bulbs, find a location with a well-drained soil and gets plenty of sun. Soggy soil is not generally favorable for these plants.

If the soil does not drain after 5-6 hours, choose another site, or layer a compost in the soil with improve draining properties.

Lighting – For greatest number of blooms and dark green bright leaves, plant them in a location where they get lots of sun.

Spacing – There are tall and dwarf canna varieties. When planting canna lily bulbs, plant taller varieties 2 feet apart. Plant dwarf varieties 1 foot apart and 4 inches deep in the soil for enough space to grow. Sow the rhizomes with their eyes, or growing points facing up.

Post planting – water plants well and enjoy heat for getting a good start. Roots sprout after a few weeks. If the temperatures are cooler in your area, they will take longer.

Water – When you water canna lily, the soil should remain damp but does not become soggy.

Pruning – In general, cannas do not require pruning. However, if you want to keep things clean, prune away.

Containers and Pots – When growing plants in pots or containers, fill them with a high quality well-drained soil. Any container or potting method works fine if drain holes are present.

Planting is just the same as discussed for open air planting. Container plants may need to be water twice per day during hot summers. Don’t allow plants to become root bound.

Tip: Grow Canna rhizomes planted in the spring after the weather warms. They are especially useful when planted one clump to an 18-inch redwood tub.

Container Gardens – Canna can be mixed with any other of plants to make a striking container garden. This works well as long as all the plants have the same temperature and water requirements.

The video below uses Canna Tropicanna canna lily to make an attractive container garden.

Easy Tips for Growing Plants in Containers

Canna Lily Facts… Did You Know?

  • Some countries use the canna rhizome as a rich edible starch
  • The foliage and stems are used as cattle fodder
  • Young canna shoots are be used in salads or eaten as a vegetable. The inner core is mildly sweet and crispy
  • The seeds are sometimes ground up to make tortillas
  • The seeds are used as beads in jewelry and rattles
  • The seeds have been used to make a purple dye
  • Canna indica small, black, hard seeds sink in water, and used as bullets, earning the common name ‘Indian shot’
  • Canna plants have been used to make light brown paper
  • In remote parts of India, cannas are fermented to make alcohol
  • In Vietnam, they use the starch to make high quality “cellophane” noodles
  • In Thailand, the canna lily is a traditional gift on Father’s Day


How To Care For Canna Lilies

Canna Lily Care – Canna’s require minimum care and are quite easy to maintain for years.

Canna lily plants like moisture. Water them well but make sure to plant the roots in a well-drained soil. Soggy soil can rot roots quickly. Apply mulch to retain moisture in dry areas.

The are heavy feeding and love compost and organic material like manure. Slow-release fertilizer with high phosphate contents on a monthly basis to help keep continuous bloom. A liquid fertilizer during summer also works for keeping plants healthy.

Deadheading the plants not necessary for continuous blooming. However, pruning keeps things tidy in the garden which helps with overall garden pest control.

Dig rhizomes in Zone 7b and north cold climates during the fall. Storing canna lily bulbs and rhizomes should be a part of fall care.

Only remove leaves once they turn yellow.

Plants rest in fall and winter and get ready for the spring season.

Canna Pest and Diseases

Japanese beetles and caterpillars will feed on the foliage. Read our article on controlling caterpillars for details on dealing with them.

Bacterial infections start early when leaves are rolled up. This can lead to infected foliage and flowers rot.

To avoid bacterial infections, select healthy plants spray dormant rhizomes with a Streptomycin solution.

In mild winter areas, plants can be left outside with a shelter. However, it is better to apply mulch for no losses in winter.

Store cannas from year to year after the last frost… they are prolific enough to have lots to give away.

Over at A Way To Garden (awaytogarden.com), Margaret Roach has put together a nice slideshow and info on getting those cannas ready to fill the landscape. Check out the slideshow via A Way to Garden

For severe winter conditions, simply move specimens to a warmer environment. Remove the extra foliage, stems, make the soil dry and remove surplus soil and store the plants in a frost free place.

The plants can be planted in a warmer condition and watered as required. This is called winterization and is the best winter care for canna lilies.

In winter, do not keep plants dry or saturated with water. Both conditions cause them to wither in autumn. Just enough water, fertilizer, sunlight are best to keep plants healthy.


Growing Dwarf Cannas A Personal Journey

Below Betty Brinhart shares her personal experience growing dwarf canna rhizomes in a Popular Gardening Magazine article back in 1961.

The hybrids – they’ve improved, but you’ll find some nice little growing tips from a time when people took special care of there gardens. This was long before cable, iPads, and the internet! Enjoy

Years ago, many houses were large with spacious lawns. Tall cannas were a popular item and widely used in garden landscaping. As houses and lawns diminished in size, giant canna plants, with their large foliage and massive flower clusters, gradually disappeared from the scene.

Hybridizers have brought cannas back to our gardens by developing smaller, dwarf cannas that fit into the landscape of the modern home.

New canna flower colors are brighter and more beautiful than those of the old taller varieties. And there are many pastel tints that blend well with any background. The dark green or bronze foliage, with each plant producing several unbranched, stately stalks shooting up from a single rootstock.

These lovely new dwarf hybrids grow from 2 1/2 to 3 feet tall. Compact in size they freely produce large, gladiolus-like florets on medium-sized spikes.

Uses For Dwarf Cannas

Plant several red canna lily beside a white garden gate to add a splash of color all summer.

On either side of the borders, plant them to frame the plantings as well as within the borders themselves, to provide accents.

Plant a few along a white garden fence as a background for low-growing annuals such as petunias, and set others out in front of evergreen plantings to add color.

I’ve also seen four cannas of the same cultivars planted in the center of a circular bed, surrounded with low-growing annuals of a lighter shade. This combination creates a striking effect on a smooth, velvety green lawn.

The popularity of dwarf cannas, fuels the development of new and interesting varieties.

Most find all of the dwarf cannas easy to grow. If you have a greenhouse or a large sunny window, buy divisions around the first of March and start them in 4 to 6-inch fiber pots for early bloom. Fill each pot two-thirds full of sandy soil. Lay the division down flat with the eyes pointing upward, then cover it with 1 inch of soil. Keep the soil moderately moist at all times.

Fill each pot two-thirds full of sandy soil. Lay the bulbs down flat with the eyes pointing upward, then cover it with 1 inch of soil. Keep the soil moderately moist at all times.

If you prefer, or if space is limited, plant all of your divisions in one large flat, placing 3 inches of sandy soil below them, and 1 inch above. Make certain the divisions do not touch, or rot may set in.

Cannas are tropical and subtropical plants and must have a constant warmth to produce growth. Keep temperatures around 70° night and day until sprouts develop.

When the sprouts are 3 inches high, transplant the plants into a larger container or into a sheltered coldframe outdoors until all danger of frost is past. If you want to increase your supply of plants take up the divisions and cut each into as many sections as there are shoots. Leave as much of the fleshy division with each shoot as possible and take care not to harm the small roots already formed.

Replant divisions individually into fiber pots, and placed on a sunny window sill until all danger of frost passes. Or transplant into a coldframe until outdoor planting time. If you do not want to divide the plants, leave them in the flat in a south window until they can be moved outdoors.

Leave as much of the fleshy division with each shoot as possible and take care not to harm the small roots already formed.

Starting canna early indoors does provide an advantage, but is not required. Plant unsprouted divisions in their permanent location outdoors as soon as the weather warms up. These will bloom by midsummer or earlier, depending upon variety.

Preparing Outdoor Beds

Prepare the outdoor beds well in advance of planting time. This allows the organic matter, lime, or commercial fertilizers time to broke down from the soil bacteria, and converted into food for the plants.

Since dwarf cannas are heavy feeders with massive root systems, deep cultivation and plenty of organic matter are the secrets of success. Spade beds to a depth of 18 inches, then turn in a reasonable amount of aged cow manure, peatmoss, compost, or leafmold, depending upon the needs of our soil. Rake the beds smooth and water them down well to settle the soil for planting.

If you do not have any organic matter on hand, you can use dehydrated cow manure with a 5-10-10 commercial fertilizer. Use this mixture only in the holes where the divisions, or plants, are placed.

After all plants sprout, top-dress the entire bed with this same mixture to help produce robust plants with plenty of bloom.

If you have established shoots growing in the house or in the cold-frame, harden them off by gradually placing them in the open by day and bringing them in again on cool nights.

A Canna Lily Grower Tip

In most areas, the first week in June is a good time for transplanting canna shoots into their permanent locations.

Place two handfuls of fertilizer in each hole and mix it well with the soil. If using fiber pots, place pot and all into the hole. When transplanting the divisions from the coldframe, take a ball of earth with each one and water well after planting.

Set unsprouted divisions 2 inches deep, 12 to 24 inches apart, depending upon the effect you wish to achieve.

Cannas are fast growers and need a great deal of water. Dry soil will retard growth, and deform the flower spikes. Water well at least twice a week during hot, dry weather. To help conserve moisture and to keep the soil in good tilth, mulch cannas with at least 6 inches of green grass clippings after the shoots have reached a foot in height.

To help conserve moisture and to keep the soil in good tilth, mulch cannas with at least 6 inches of green grass clippings after the shoots have reached a foot in height.

During the last week in July, just as the plants are setting their buds, mix up a liquid plant fertilizer made by stirring one-half cup of dehydrated cow manure into a gallon of warm water, using a quart per plant. If you prefer, you can give another top-dressing with a 5-10-10 commercial fertilizer instead of the liquid fertilizer. When using a dry fertilizer, water it in immediately with a fine hose spray.

Watch out for Japanese beetles bothering your cannas. Pick them off by hand. If any other insects should infest your plants, use an insecticide according to manufacturer’s directions. It is important to spray regularly as recommended until they all disappear.

Another pest to watch out for is the canna leaf roller. The first measure to control the larvae that feeds inside the rolled leaves is to consider Bacillus thuringiensis. Learn more about BT here and more about the canna leaf roller here.

When frost finally blackens the canna foliage, cut off the stalks, take up the rootstocks and, after drying them off, store in a dry, cool place until spring.


Canna Questions and Answers:

How Long Does A Canna Root Have To Rest?

Question: How long does a canna root have to rest? I would like to start them in pots in the house before setting them out later.

Answer: Start canna roots in March indoors and by May 1 you will have nice heavy plants ready to set outdoors. There is no advantage in starting cantles earlier than the middle of March for the plants would become too. large to handle in pots.

To start the new plants, cut each eye from the clumps. Each fat tip, a couple of inches long, will soon root and produce a new plant.

Cannas Have Lovely Foliage But Few Flowers

Question: I have some very old canna bulbs. Why do my cannas have lovely foliage but only is spike of a flower? Kansas

Answer: Old fashioned cannas were grown chiefly for their foliage. The newer hybrids are noted for their gorgeous flowers. It would be well to discard the cannas you are growing and buy some new hybrids in colors of your choice. No amount of pampering will make old strains of cannas bloom like the new hybrids.

Can You Start Cannas Indoors?

Question: Is it necessary to start cannas indoors?

Answer: If your growing season is short and cannas bloom just before killing frosts when planted directly outdoors, it is advisable to start the tubers in March in flats or large pots in a warm cellar or attic.


The Boldness of Cannas In The Landscape

Where a bit of striking color is desirable, cannas are the answer. Their foliage and blossoms are spectacularly bright. The thick leaves, which may be dark green or bronze, give a tropical feeling. Flowers are large and showy, most often in vibrant yellow and scarlet colors bring a boldness to the landscape and that never goes out of style.

The canna lily plant is a low maintenance, easy to grow, flamboyant summer flowering herbaceous perennial plant for long-lasting garden color. [LEARN MORE]





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28 May 2018

Q&A with Darrell Frey & Michelle Czolba, authors of The Food Forest Handbook


Darrell Frey is a sustainable community development consultant and permaculture designer with nearly thirty years experience in the field. He is co-author of the Food Forest Handbook and the author of Bioshelter Market Garden: A Permaculture Farm (New Society Publishing 2011)

Michelle Czolba, M.Sc. co-founded the Hazelwood Food Forest and was co-owner of a Pittsburgh-based permaculture design business. She has extensive experience in the design and maintenance of perennial polyculture through personal and professional projects. Her formal training includes biology, chemistry, and herbalism, and she has earned a B.Sc. in Environmental Science and a M.Sc. in Sustainable Systems. After obtaining her Herbal Certification she founded a natural cosmetics company, and developed her own full line of handmade, wildcrafted and organic skin care products. You can find her as part of the team at threesisterspermaculture.com.

In their collaborative effort, “The Food Forest Handbook“, Frey and Czolba offer a practical manual for the design and management of a home-scale perennial polyculture garden complete with simple, straightforward instructions.  Read on to learn more and enter below to win one of three copies from New Society Publishers!


1. The concept of a “food forest” might be new to some. What exactly is it, in a nutshell?

A Food Forest is a perennial garden with up to seven layers of useful plants. Picture an apple tree,with smaller shrubs, such as currants around the edge of the tree’s canopy. Among the shrubs herbs and flowers can be planted.

Plants in the food forest are chosen based on permaculture principles and generally have more than one purpose, for example a plant that is both edible and attracts beneficial insects.

2. Why should we pursue developing a food forest? What are the advantages over other types of gardening?

A food forest is a good way to maximize small spaces. Shade loving plants can be placed on the shady side of the tree and sun loving plants on the sunny side. Instead of a single harvest of fruit from a tree, a perennial polyculture can provide provide a number of crops in the same space. Additionally, food forests include plants that provide for the system itself, such as plants that fix nitrogen, are used for mulch, or attract pollinators.

3. Can those in rural and urban areas alike develop and grow a food forest? Does it require a lot of acreage?

Some people do plant and manage large scale forest gardens, but a food forest design can be as small as a couple hundred square feet.

4. How does your book simplify the design and planning of a food forest?

Our goal was to write a book that takes the reader through a simple step by step process to study their land, make a plan and manage their food forest on a scale that the home gardener can tend to easily. We do not go into excessive details on specific plants to use, rather we wanted to keep it simple and focused on the design process itself.

5. What are some features of your book that readers will find particularly useful and helpful?

The Food Forest Handbook has a main focus on understanding basic permaculture concepts that relate to food forest design. We also provide a number of instructive and inspiring examples of food forests around North America. The reader can go from an empty piece of land, through the design process, to planting and maintaining their edible landscape with easy to follow instructions and language. One does not need to be a permaculture expert to understand the concepts.

Win one of three copies of “The Food Forest Handbook“!

To enter, simply leave a comment on this blog post by midnight on Sunday, June 3, 2018 (be sure to provide a valid e-mail address) in answer to the following question:

Why do you want to transform your land into a food forest?

Be sure to include a valid e-mail address. The winner will be drawn at random from all qualified entrants, and notified via e-mail. (See rules for more information.)

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